Eurofound's EU PolicyWatch collates information on the responses of government and social partners to the COVID-19 crisis, the war in Ukraine, rising inflation, as well as gathering examples of company practices aimed at mitigating the social and economic impacts.
Factsheet for measure PL-2022-9/2322 – measures in Poland
|Country||Poland , applies nationwide|
|Time period||Open ended, started on 24 February 2022|
|Context||War in Ukraine|
|Type||Legislations or other statutory regulations|
Measures to prevent social hardship
– Access to childcare and education
|Author||Jan Czarzasty (Warsaw School of Economics)|
|Measure added||18 May 2022 (updated 02 March 2023)|
On 24 February 2022, Russia invaded Ukraine. As a result of Russian aggression, many Ukrainian refugees fled to Poland.
On 12 March 2022, the special act regarding Ukrainian refugees entered into force (Dz.U. 2022 poz. 583), with effect from 24 February 2022. Its aim is to provide assistance to Ukrainians escaping the territory of Ukraine due to armed conflict.
According to the law, all children who are not Polish citizens are granted access to education and care in public kindergartens under the same conditions as Polish citizens. According to the provisions of the new Act, the limits on the number of children in nurseries, kindergartens and schools will not apply to Ukrainian citizens who legally reside in Poland. Additionally, in schools and kindergartens, special teaching, educational and care activities for Ukrainians may be organised.
The monthly costs of education are estimated in three variants, depending on the amount of Ukrainian children:
Schools receive money from the government unless they decide to organise extra activities and initiatives, in which case local governments have to finance it.
Ukrainian students, who entered Poland on or after 24 February 2022, can apply for and receive social scholarships and student loans. Furthermore, people who arrived from Ukraine to Poland, and until 24 February 2022, were students of Ukrainian universities, can continue their education at Polish universities. Polish and Ukrainian citizens do not need to have documents to certify their study periods or exams.
According to the statistical data published by the Polish government, on 17 May 2022, there were 564 registered students from Ukraine, who started their education in Poland after 24 February 2022 for the first time. In addition, there were 921 registered students from Ukraine, who continued their education in Poland after 24 February 2022. According to the Deputy Minister of Education Marzena Machałek, there were almost 192,000 Ukrainian children enrolled in Polish schools on 26 April 2022.
According to the Ministry of Education and Science, as of November 2022, there were 191,000 Ukrainian students enrolled in Polish schools after 24 February 2022, while the total number of Ukrainian students in Poland is between 400,000 and 500,000.
According to the Ministry 1,500 students are continuing their studies in Poland in the academic year 2022/23 as part of the solidarity programme with Ukraine.
|Does not apply to workers||Does not apply to businesses||
Migrants or refugees
Local / regional government
Social partners' role in designing the measure and form of involvement:
|Trade unions||Employers' organisations|
|Form||Not applicable||Not applicable|
Social partners' role in the implementation, monitoring and assessment phase:
|Economic area||Sector (NACE level 2)|
|P - Education||P85 Education|
This case is not occupation-specific.
Eurofound (2022), Access to childcare and education for Ukrainian refugees, measure PL-2022-9/2322 (measures in Poland), EU PolicyWatch, Dublin, https://static.eurofound.europa.eu/covid19db/cases/PL-2022-9_2322.html
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Disclaimer: This information has not been subject to the full Eurofound evaluation, editorial and publication process.