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Eurofound's EU PolicyWatch collates information on the responses of government and social partners to the COVID-19 crisis, the war in Ukraine, rising inflation, as well as gathering examples of company practices aimed at mitigating the social and economic impacts.

Factsheet for measure HU-2022-10/2442 Updated – measures in Hungary

Education and childcare for Ukrainian refugee children

A köznevelési és szakképző intézményben ideiglenes védelemre jogosult, tanköteles tanulók fejlesztése, nevelése-oktatása

Country Hungary , applies nationwide
Time period Temporary, 01 March 2022 – 25 November 2023
Context War in Ukraine
Type Legislations or other statutory regulations
Category Measures to prevent social hardship
– Access to childcare and education
Author Nóra Krokovay (KOPINT-Tárki) and Eurofound
Measure added 03 June 2022 (updated 19 June 2023)

Background information

Government decree 117/2022 states that refugee children under temporary protection of school age must be financed by the state. The school must provide extracurricular lessons for refugee children. Childcare must also be organised for children under the age of 14 at reception centres or other places of accommodation if they are accompanied by an adult, under government decree 147/2022.

Content of measure

Headmasters of schools received a letter from the state secretary in charge of public education, stating that schools have an obligation to take on Ukrainian students in their catchment area. Unaccompanied children are helped by volunteers in some schools at their own initiative.

Hungary is helping educate children who fled the war in Ukraine. The government is providing HUF 130,000 (€342) a month per pupil to approximately 600 educational institutions that are providing Hungarian language education to refugee children. There is no cap on this aid and all refugee children with a protective status are eligible.

Total spending is estimated to be about €513,000 per month. Schools and teachers are organising their own methodology and strategy with help from NGOs and educational groups to teach Ukrainian children Hungarian as a second language. There are online help groups formed among teachers who need help teaching refugee pupils. Ukrainian students ahead of school-leaving exams could take their exams in the Hungarian system with help from university student volunteers.


The following updates to this measure have been made after it came into effect.

12 May 2023

Hungary's "state of danger due to armed conflict in a neighbouring country" was put into effect on 24 February 2022 to last until 31 May 2022. The services provided for refugees from Ukraine are in effect until this state of danger is in effect. There have been the following extensions so far:

  • 25 May 2022 - 31 October 2022 (govt decree 180/2022)
  • 1 November 2022 - 11 May 2023 (govt decree 424/2022)
  • 12 May 2023 - 25 November 2023 (Act XI of 2023; govt decree 424/2022 modified)

Use of measure

On 7 April 2022 the state secretary for public education said that among refugee children fleeing the war in Ukraine, 268 are attending nursery school and 1,050 are attending primary school in Hungary. On 4 May deputy leader of the PSZ teachers’ union said that some 9,000 refugee children have come to Hungary so far, of which 300 are in nursery school and 1,200 are in primary and secondary schools. Many children are not attending school because their parents have not registered for temporary protection or are lacking information on where to turn. According to public media, more than 2,500 Ukrainian children started the 2022/2023 school year in the public school system in September 2022. Research published by the refugee NGO Menedek stated that some 340,000 children have come to Hungary fleeing the war in Ukraine by June 2022. Data estimate that 26% of Ukrainian refugees with temporary protection in Hungary are under-18, which puts school-age children's numbers at around 6,300, the study says.

Target groups

Workers Businesses Citizens
Does not apply to workers Does not apply to businesses Children (minors)
Migrants or refugees

Actors and funding

Actors Funding
National government
Other social actors (e.g. NGOs)
European Funds

Social partners

Social partners' role in designing the measure and form of involvement:

Trade unions Employers' organisations
Role No involvement No involvement
Form Not applicable Not applicable

Social partners' role in the implementation, monitoring and assessment phase:

  • No involvement
  • Main level of involvement: N/A


No involvement was reported.

Views and reactions

The Teachers' Trade Union PSZ proposed that kindergarten teachers, teachers and lecturers should be granted additional pay in recognition of their extra work, who teach and educate refugee children from Ukraine in an integrated way (i.e. together with Hungarians). PSZ criticised the government for not attending a conference on refugee education organised by Education International for regional countries receiving refugees from Ukraine.

Sectors and occupations

    • Economic area Sector (NACE level 2)
      P - Education P85 Education

This case is not occupation-specific.


  • 23 March 2022: Govt decree 115/2022 on school-leaving exams for refugees (
  • 23 March 2022: Govt decree 117/2022 on financing the schooling/childcare of refugees (
  • 23 March 2022: Govt decree 147/2022 on childcare for accompanied children from Ukraine (
  • 23 March 2022: Refugee children in schools (
  • 25 April 2022: Ukrainian refugee children in Hungarian schools (
  • 04 May 2022: TU: Only Hungary was absent from ETUCE conference (
  • 09 May 2022: Trade union PSZ: Teaching refugee children (
  • 09 September 2022: Thousands of Ukrainian children start school year (
  • 11 October 2022: Ukrainian children in the Hungarian public education system (


Eurofound (2022), Education and childcare for Ukrainian refugee children, measure HU-2022-10/2442 (measures in Hungary), EU PolicyWatch, Dublin,


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Disclaimer: This information has not been subject to the full Eurofound evaluation, editorial and publication process.