Eurofound's EU PolicyWatch collates information on the responses of government and social partners to the COVID-19 crisis, the war in Ukraine, rising inflation, as well as gathering examples of company practices aimed at mitigating the social and economic impacts.
Factsheet for measure HU-2022-10/2442 – Updated – measures in Hungary
|Country||Hungary , applies nationwide|
|Time period||Temporary, 01 March 2022 – 25 November 2023|
|Context||War in Ukraine|
|Type||Legislations or other statutory regulations|
Measures to prevent social hardship
– Access to childcare and education
|Author||Nóra Krokovay (KOPINT-Tárki) and Eurofound|
|Measure added||03 June 2022 (updated 19 June 2023)|
Government decree 117/2022 states that refugee children under temporary protection of school age must be financed by the state. The school must provide extracurricular lessons for refugee children. Childcare must also be organised for children under the age of 14 at reception centres or other places of accommodation if they are accompanied by an adult, under government decree 147/2022.
Headmasters of schools received a letter from the state secretary in charge of public education, stating that schools have an obligation to take on Ukrainian students in their catchment area. Unaccompanied children are helped by volunteers in some schools at their own initiative.
Hungary is helping educate children who fled the war in Ukraine. The government is providing HUF 130,000 (€342) a month per pupil to approximately 600 educational institutions that are providing Hungarian language education to refugee children. There is no cap on this aid and all refugee children with a protective status are eligible.
Total spending is estimated to be about €513,000 per month. Schools and teachers are organising their own methodology and strategy with help from NGOs and educational groups to teach Ukrainian children Hungarian as a second language. There are online help groups formed among teachers who need help teaching refugee pupils. Ukrainian students ahead of school-leaving exams could take their exams in the Hungarian system with help from university student volunteers.
On 7 April 2022 the state secretary for public education said that among refugee children fleeing the war in Ukraine, 268 are attending nursery school and 1,050 are attending primary school in Hungary. On 4 May deputy leader of the PSZ teachers’ union said that some 9,000 refugee children have come to Hungary so far, of which 300 are in nursery school and 1,200 are in primary and secondary schools. Many children are not attending school because their parents have not registered for temporary protection or are lacking information on where to turn. According to public media hirado.hu, more than 2,500 Ukrainian children started the 2022/2023 school year in the public school system in September 2022. Research published by the refugee NGO Menedek stated that some 340,000 children have come to Hungary fleeing the war in Ukraine by June 2022. Data estimate that 26% of Ukrainian refugees with temporary protection in Hungary are under-18, which puts school-age children's numbers at around 6,300, the study says.
|Does not apply to workers||Does not apply to businesses||
Migrants or refugees
Other social actors (e.g. NGOs)
Social partners' role in designing the measure and form of involvement:
|Trade unions||Employers' organisations|
|Role||No involvement||No involvement|
|Form||Not applicable||Not applicable|
Social partners' role in the implementation, monitoring and assessment phase:
No involvement was reported.
The Teachers' Trade Union PSZ proposed that kindergarten teachers, teachers and lecturers should be granted additional pay in recognition of their extra work, who teach and educate refugee children from Ukraine in an integrated way (i.e. together with Hungarians). PSZ criticised the government for not attending a conference on refugee education organised by Education International for regional countries receiving refugees from Ukraine.
|Economic area||Sector (NACE level 2)|
|P - Education||P85 Education|
This case is not occupation-specific.
Eurofound (2022), Education and childcare for Ukrainian refugee children, measure HU-2022-10/2442 (measures in Hungary), EU PolicyWatch, Dublin, https://static.eurofound.europa.eu/covid19db/cases/HU-2022-10_2442.html
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Disclaimer: This information has not been subject to the full Eurofound evaluation, editorial and publication process.