European Foundation
for the Improvement of
Living and Working Conditions

The tripartite EU agency providing knowledge to assist
in the development of better social, employment and
work-related policies

EU PolicyWatch

Database of national-level policy measures

Eurofound's EU PolicyWatch collates information on the responses of government and social partners to the COVID-19 crisis, the war in Ukraine, rising inflation, as well as gathering examples of company practices aimed at mitigating the social and economic impacts.

Factsheet for measure DK-2020-13/721 – measures in Denmark

Guide to the COVID-19 'Job-VET-model'

Vejviser til COVID-19 Job-VEU modellen

Country Denmark , applies nationwide
Time period Open ended, started on 27 March 2020
Context COVID-19
Type Non-binding recommendations or other texts
Category Promoting the economic, labour market and social recovery into a green future
– Active labour market policies (enhancing employability, training, subsidised job creation, etc.)
Author Carsten Jørgensen (FAOS, University of Copenhagen), Anders Randrup (Oxford Research)
Measure added 17 April 2020 (updated 20 January 2022)

Background information

COVID-19 causes great uncertainty among many Danish employees and companies. The Regional Labor Market Councils (RAR) and the Danish Agency for Labor Market and Recruitment (START) have therefore implemented this COVID-19 'Job-VET-model' for retaining employees through remote learning.

The remote learning programs provide companies with more opportunities to retain their own employees in a situation where many companies are experiencing a downturn in business. In addition, companies have the opportunity to compensate for wage losses through "VEU/SVU-allowance". In addition, there are opportunities to obtain grants from other sources, such as any competency funds, etc.

The model was first launched in the service, tourism, hotel and restoration industries, and then the construction and offshore industries were added. At the same time, several other industries are on their way to be included in the model.

Content of measure

The 'Job-VET-model' consists of four stages:

  1. The needs of the labor market
  2. Agreement between the social partners and specification of professional content
  3. Preparation of project plan
  4. Selection of education provider and online learning program

The model assumes that the social partners, educational institutions and The Danish Agency for Labour Market and Recruitment jointly put together a VET-program (online) that targets specific industries. For example, it may be competencies targeted to sales and service within the restaurant industry.

Companies receive up to 100% of their wage costs, while employees participate in distance education. The salary is covered by the "VEU-allowance" and may be supplemented by funds from the collective agreement on "Competence Fund".

Use of measure

Projects to mitigate the negative consequences of the COVID-19 crisis were not considered in the model from the start. Now they make up the largest project type (measured by number of students). Overall in 2020, there was registered to have been 275 completed projects with a total number of 10,781 course participants. And approximately every third Job-VET student last year participated in COVID-19 project. These projects have been developed and implemented in 2020 and are characterized by quick settlement due to the urgent need for companies.

Target groups

Workers Businesses Citizens
Employees in standard employment
Sector specific set of companies
Does not apply to citizens

Actors and funding

Actors Funding
National government
Social partners jointly
Trade unions
Employers' organisations
Public employment service
Public support service providers
Employers organisation
National funds

Social partners

Social partners' role in designing the measure and form of involvement:

Trade unions Employers' organisations
Role Unknown Unknown
Form Not applicable Not applicable

Social partners' role in the implementation, monitoring and assessment phase:

  • Unknown
  • Main level of involvement: Unknown



Views and reactions

The model is jointly agreed between the social partners. The partners generally assess that the results are so far as positive as in the “classic” Job VET projects. It shows that the focal point of the model - job-oriented upskilling, which is rooted in the needs of the labor market - gives actors great flexibility while the positive results of the model are maintained.

Sectors and occupations

    • Economic area Sector (NACE level 2)
      F - Construction F41 Construction of buildings
      F42 Civil engineering
      F43 Specialised construction activities
      I - Accommodation And Food Service Activities I55 Accommodation
      I56 Food and beverage service activities

This case is not occupation-specific.



Eurofound (2020), Guide to the COVID-19 'Job-VET-model', measure DK-2020-13/721 (measures in Denmark), EU PolicyWatch, Dublin,


Eurofound publications based on EU PolicyWatch

30 January 2023


Measures to lessen the impact of the inflation and energy crisis on citizens

Governments across the EU continue to implement policies to support citizens and businesses in the face of rising food and energy prices caused by the COVID-19 crisis and intensified by the war in Ukraine. This article summarises the policy responses as reported in Eurofound's EU PolicyWatch database from January to September 2022.


12 September 2022


First responses to cushion the impact of inflation on citizens

Although the worldwide pandemic situation had already disrupted supply chains and triggered increases in energy and food prices in 2021, the situation deteriorated in 2022 with the Russian invasion of Ukraine.


12 September 2022


Policies to support EU companies affected by the war in Ukraine

This article summarises the first policy responses that governments across the EU have started to implement to support companies affected by the rising prices, and those with commercial ties to Ukraine, Russia or Belarus.


5 July 2022


Policies to support refugees from Ukraine

This article summarises the first policy responses of EU Member States, including those of the social partners and other civil society actors, enabling refugees to exercise their rights under the Temporary Protection Directive.


Disclaimer: This information has not been subject to the full Eurofound evaluation, editorial and publication process.