Eurofound's EU PolicyWatch collates information on the responses of government and social partners to the COVID-19 crisis, the war in Ukraine, rising inflation, as well as gathering examples of company practices aimed at mitigating the social and economic impacts.
Factsheet for measure DK-2010-52/2481 – Updated – measures in Denmark
|Denmark , applies nationwide
|Open ended, started on 22 December 2010
|COVID-19, Restructuring Support Instruments
|Legislations or other statutory regulations
Promoting the economic, labour market and social recovery into a green future
– Active labour market policies (enhancing employability, training, subsidised job creation, etc.)
|Carsten Jørgensen (FAOS, University of Copenhagen), Anders Randrup (Oxford Research)
|23 June 2022 (updated 23 November 2022)
Job rotation was introduced in the Act on active employment effort. Job rotation takes place when an employee in a company temporarily participates in further training or education and an unemployed person is hired as temporary worker. There must be an hour-to-hour relation between the number of training hours and the number of temporary work hours. The 'job-first' approach means that the job centres give priority to sending the unemployed to a full-time job and not in part-time employment.
Job rotation implies that an employee in a company can be replaced by an unemployed person while in continuous training. The primary interest of the companies will typically be to give a competence lift to their employees. The instrument is open to all companies and is not restricted to the public or private sector.
The temporary workers are chosen among unemployed people with a minimum of 26 weeks of unemployment. The wage follows the collective agreement in the company and the employment period should go from a minimum of 10 hours to a maximum of 26 weeks. Students, trainees, apprentices and adult apprentices, such as people in education, are not covered by this job rotation scheme. Job rotation is used in companies with unskilled or low-skilled workforce.
In 2020, the job rotation benefit amounted to DKK 190.44 (€25.59) per hour for both private and public companies. The administration of the job rotation scheme is currently the responsibility of STAR (The Agency for Labour Market and Recruitment).
In 2019, a state financed poll of DKK 20 million (€2.7 million) gave the possibility to municipalities to offer people involved in job rotation to take up a vocational education as part of their job rotation course. Since 2016, the number of people in job rotation declined slowly to a level of 1,313 persons/heads in 2019 using the job rotation scheme.
The 'job-first' approach means that the job centres give priority to sending the unemployed to a full-time job and not in part-time employment. Job rotation is mostly used in companies with unskilled or low-skilled workforce.
In 2010, 433 unemployed were in job rotation, and in 2011 the number had only increased to 471. However, at the beginning of 2014, the number of unemployed in job rotation strongly increased to around 5,000 full-time persons, or equivalent to 13,500 heads.
The number of people in job rotation has declined further during the COVID-19 crisis. In February 2020, 397 people were using the scheme. In March of the same year the number fell to 378, and in April to 338. In June 2020, 244 persons were in a job rotation course.
Employees in standard employment
|Applies to all businesses
|Does not apply to citizens
Local / regional government
Social partners' role in designing the measure and form of involvement:
Social partners' role in the implementation, monitoring and assessment phase:
Eurofound (2022), Job rotation, measure DK-2010-52/2481 (measures in Denmark), EU PolicyWatch, Dublin, https://static.eurofound.europa.eu/covid19db/cases/DK-2010-52_2481.html
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