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Database of national-level policy measures

Eurofound's EU PolicyWatch collates information on the responses of government and social partners to the COVID-19 crisis, the war in Ukraine, rising inflation, as well as gathering examples of company practices aimed at mitigating the social and economic impacts.

Factsheet for measure DE-2022-40/3052 – measures in Germany

Marginal employment earning threshold raised

Anhebung der Midijob Grenze

Country Germany , applies nationwide
Time period Open ended, started on 01 October 2022
Context War in Ukraine
Type Legislations or other statutory regulations
Category N/A
– Increasing income in general
Author Sandra Vogel (IW)
Measure added 14 February 2023 (updated 07 November 2023)

Background information

Due to the rising inflation resulting from the ongoing war in Ukraine, the federal government has adopted three relief packages during 2022: the first two from the first half of 2022; the third in from autumn 2022. The three packages, together, are worth €95 billion. In addition, the federal government created a fund worth €200 billion to cushion the rising energy prices. Against this background, the federal government is also using other labour market instruments to provide low-income earners with more net earnings.

Content of measure

In October 2022, the federal government raised the earning thresholds for marginal employees. There are two forms of marginal employment in Germany. The first refers to so-called mini-jobs that allow mini-job holders, starting from 1 October 2022, to earn €520 per month whilst paying strongly reduced social security contributions in comparison to other employees in standard employment. The second marginal employment form refers to the so-called midi-jobs. Since 1 October 2022, employees in midi-jobs could earn between €520,01 and €1,600 per month (also paying reduced social security contributions). However, the latter threshold was raised to €2,000 with effect from 1 January 2023. The federal government decided to take this step in order to provide low-income employees with higher net incomes in times of high inflation.

Use of measure

The central collecting and reporting agency for all marginal part-time jobs (Minijob-Zentrale) reported that on 30 June 2023 over 6.6 million mini-jobbers worked in the commercial sector and 269,081 mini-jobbers in private households in Germany. Whilst the number of mini-jobbers in private households has fallen compared to the previous year, the figure in the commercial sector has increased by 3.5 percent.

Target groups

Workers Businesses Citizens
Workers in non-standard forms of employment
Does not apply to businesses Does not apply to citizens

Actors and funding

Actors Funding
National government
Public employment service
Social insurance
National funds

Social partners

Social partners' role in designing the measure and form of involvement:

Trade unions Employers' organisations
Role Consulted Consulted
Form Direct consultation outside a formal body Direct consultation outside a formal body

Social partners' role in the implementation, monitoring and assessment phase:

  • No involvement
  • Main level of involvement: Peak or cross-sectoral level


In autumn 2022, social partners were asked for their comments and positions for a parliamentary hearing regards the legislative changes needed to raise the midi-job threshold.

Views and reactions

Employers organisations, such as the Confederation of German Employer Association (BDA) strongly criticised raising the midi-job threshold. In the view of the BDA, the reform set incentives for workers to work part-time only (though the German economy faced labour shortages). In addition, labour costs were raised once more by this measure. The Confederation of German Trade Unions (DGB) similarly criticised the measure for creating incentives to work part-time jobs that did not secure a living. In addition, the measure burdened the statutory social security system as marginal employees only paid lower contributions.



Eurofound (2023), Marginal employment earning threshold raised, measure DE-2022-40/3052 (measures in Germany), EU PolicyWatch, Dublin,


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Disclaimer: This information has not been subject to the full Eurofound evaluation, editorial and publication process.