Eurofound's EU PolicyWatch collates information on the responses of government and social partners to the COVID-19 crisis, the war in Ukraine, rising inflation, as well as gathering examples of company practices aimed at mitigating the social and economic impacts.
Factsheet for measure DE-2022-23/2253 – measures in Germany
|Country||Germany , applies nationwide|
|Time period||Temporary, 01 June 2022 – 31 August 2022|
|Context||COVID-19, War in Ukraine, Green Transition|
|Type||Legislations or other statutory regulations|
Responses to inflation
– Support for other basic items (e.g., food, housing, public transport, medicines)
|Author||Birgit Kraemer (Hans Boeckler Foundation) and Eurofound|
|Measure added||12 May 2022 (updated 26 September 2022)|
In the course of the Russian war of aggression against Ukraine fuel prices have been significantly rising. In May 2022, the German national parliament (Bundestag) adopted a relief package addressed to citizens, workers, and companies. The €9 ticket is a central part of the package and addressed to support commuters and all mobile citizens, workers, or self-employed.
From 1 June to 30 August 2022, a greatly reduced public transport ticket for €9 per calendar month will be offered throughout Germany. Owners of an existing and more expensive subscription will be compensated. The ticket will be valid in Germany on buses and trains in local and regional transport, but not for long-distance transport (such as ICE, IC, or EC trains, and Flix trains and buses). The ticket is designed as a relief measure to reduce commuter costs and at the same time as an incentive to use public transport instead of the car for short-distance travel. The government has communicated the ticket also as an experiment to see how public transport can be enhanced in the future and contribute to the reduction of fossil energy use and CO2 emissions. The German states (Länder) are responsible to implement the measure according to their respective legal frameworks. They will be supported by the national government with €2.5 billion.
The German Association of Transport Companies (VDV) reported that by 29 August they had sold 52 million €9 tickets. Additionally, about 10 million subscribers to other ticket formats (e.g. monthly tickets for commuters) had received the €9 ticket automatically. According to the VDV study, the percentage of trips with the €9 ticket per month (subscribers + ticket buyers) that were shifted from the car to public transport was around 10%. The average savings in greenhouse gases (CO2 equivalents) per month with the €9 ticket were estimated at around 600,000 tons of CO2 per month.
|Does not apply to workers||Does not apply to businesses||Applies to all citizens|
Social partners' role in designing the measure and form of involvement:
|Trade unions||Employers' organisations|
|Form||Not applicable||Not applicable|
Social partners' role in the implementation, monitoring and assessment phase:
The German Trade Union Confederation (DGB) supports an affordable public transport ticket in general, but calls for a long-term solution with a €1 or 2 ticket and large-scale investment in the public transport infrastructure.
Eurofound (2022), Reduced €9 monthly ticket for local public transport, measure DE-2022-23/2253 (measures in Germany), EU PolicyWatch, Dublin, https://static.eurofound.europa.eu/covid19db/cases/DE-2022-23_2253.html
30 January 2023
Governments across the EU continue to implement policies to support citizens and businesses in the face of rising food and energy prices caused by the COVID-19 crisis and intensified by the war in Ukraine. As winter approaches, preventing and addressing energy poverty becomes a priority. This article summarises the policy responses as reported in Eurofoundâ€™s EU PolicyWatch database from January to September 2022.Article
12 September 2022
Although the worldwide pandemic situation had already disrupted supply chains and triggered increases in energy and food prices in 2021, the situation deteriorated in 2022 with the Russian invasion of Ukraine.Article
12 September 2022
This article summarises the first policy responses that governments across the EU have started to implement to support companies affected by the rising prices, and those with commercial ties to Ukraine, Russia or Belarus.
Disclaimer: This information has not been subject to the full Eurofound evaluation, editorial and publication process.