Eurofound's EU PolicyWatch collates information on the responses of government and social partners to the COVID-19 crisis, the war in Ukraine, rising inflation, as well as gathering examples of company practices aimed at mitigating the social and economic impacts.
Factsheet for measure DE-2022-10/2296 – measures in Germany
|Country||Germany , applies nationwide|
|Time period||Open ended, started on 04 March 2022|
|Context||War in Ukraine|
|Type||Legislations or other statutory regulations|
Promoting the economic, labour market and social recovery
– Active labour market policies (enhancing employability, training, subsidised job creation, etc.)
|Author||Sandra Vogel (IW)|
|Measure added||17 May 2022 (updated 07 July 2023)|
Against the background of the Russian aggression against Ukraine, the EU Ministers of the Interior to activate the so-called Mass Influx Directive on 4 March 2022. Due to this decision, section 24 of the German Residence Act is applicable for Ukrainians fleeing the war; easing access to residency permits and the German labour market significantly.
Until 31 August 2022, Ukrainians fleeing the war, are not obliged to register for a (temporary) residency permit in Germany. However, they can register with the foreigners' authorities and be granted a temporary residence permit for protection immediately (in accordance with section 24 of the German Residence Act). Once the temporary residence permit is issued, the competent foreigners' authority can also grant Ukrainian refugees permission to work - allowing them to take up any gainful employment in Germany (be it as an employee or a freelancer or a self-employed person). However, restrictions for certain professions remain in place in which professional credentials must be recognized first by the competent authorities (e.g. for doctors or teachers).
According to the Central Register of Foreigners (AZR), around 1,062,000 Ukrainians lived in Germany at the end of July 2022, 906,000 more than at the end of February.
The German Federal Employment Agency reports that in August 2022 there were 545,591 Ukrainian citizens entitled to receive basic unemployment assistance (Arbeitslosengeld 2) in Germany, including those who had not yet fulfilled the 3 month qualifying period before receiving benefits.
The Federal Statistical Office reported that over 1 million Ukrainians lived in Germany at the end of October 2022. The majority of those Ukrainian persons having arrived in Germany since February 2022 are women and children.
The Federal Office of Statistics reports that on 31 December 2022, there were 1.01 million Ukrainian people seeking protection in Germany. Compared to the previous year, the proportion of Ukrainian refugees in Germany rose from 2% at the end of 2021 to 33% at the end of 2022. Overall, the number of people moving from Ukraine to Germany has been decreasing since August 2022. Preliminary results show that 27,000 new arrivals were registered in March 2023, compared to approximately 430,000 in March 2022
Migrants or refugees in employment
||Does not apply to businesses||Does not apply to citizens|
EU (Council, EC, EP)
Social partners' role in designing the measure and form of involvement:
|Trade unions||Employers' organisations|
|Form||Not applicable||Not applicable|
Social partners' role in the implementation, monitoring and assessment phase:
In general, social partners are consulted on all major legislative changes regards social and labour market issues.
At the end of March 2022, the Confederation of German Employers' Associations (BDA) welcomed the decision to grant a temporary residence and working permit immediately. The Confederation of German Trade Unions (DGB) similarly welcomed the eased rules and calls for further steps, such as fast recognition of foreign professional credentials.
Eurofound (2022), Residence permit and German labour market access, measure DE-2022-10/2296 (measures in Germany), EU PolicyWatch, Dublin, https://static.eurofound.europa.eu/covid19db/cases/DE-2022-10_2296.html
30 January 2023
Governments across the EU continue to implement policies to support citizens and businesses in the face of rising food and energy prices caused by the COVID-19 crisis and intensified by the war in Ukraine. This article summarises the policy responses as reported in Eurofound's EU PolicyWatch database from January to September 2022.Article
12 September 2022
Although the worldwide pandemic situation had already disrupted supply chains and triggered increases in energy and food prices in 2021, the situation deteriorated in 2022 with the Russian invasion of Ukraine.Article
12 September 2022
This article summarises the first policy responses that governments across the EU have started to implement to support companies affected by the rising prices, and those with commercial ties to Ukraine, Russia or Belarus.Article
Disclaimer: This information has not been subject to the full Eurofound evaluation, editorial and publication process.